top of page
  • Writer's pictureDerrick Schull

Mental Health Missing Pieces - Kryptopyrroluria


Hemopyrrollactamuria (HPU)

The Mauve Factor

Krptopyrroluria is an inherited or acquired condition in which the body produces an excessive amount of a substance (hydroxy-hemopyrrolin-2-one) that binds to essential nutrients. It is a common underlying pathology in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders and chronic conditions. This disorder was first recognized and developed by Abram Hoffer, MD (the father of orthomelecular psychiatry) in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Hoffer was in search of a common underlying marker of schizophrenic patients. What he found was a substance within the urine that was the color of mauve, hence it was named mauve factor. Later, this substance was renamed kryptopyrrole and to date is most accurately named hydroxy-hemopyrrolin-2-one (HPL).

Conditions that may have KPU/HPU as an underlying process (and relative rates):

ADHD (30%)

Alcoholism/substance abuse (40-80%)

Autism (50-80%)

Bipolar disorders

Criminal behavior



Down syndrome

Heavy Metal Toxicity (75%+)

Learning disabilities

Lyme Disease (80%+)

Schizophrenia (40-70%)

Dr. Diedrich Klinghart, MD has been revitalizing interest in exploring KPU as a factor in the physiology of his patients. His research and clinical experience was used to determine the approximate percentages given above.

Hemopyrroles are capable of binding the following essential nutrients (in order of relevance):

Zinc (Zn) - an essential mineral utilized in over 300 enzymes of the approximately 1500 enzymes identified in the body. A small deficiency in this mineral and have a lot of effects, including a greater propensity to accumulate heavy metals such as Mercury and Cadmium.

Signs of Zn deficiency:

  • Acne

  • ADHD

  • Dandruff

  • Delayed puberty

  • Depression

  • Diarrhea

  • Dry/Scaling Skin (xerosis)

  • Eczema

  • Emotional disorders

  • Fatigue/lethargy

  • Hair Loss (alopecia)

  • Hyperactivity

  • Hypochlorhydria (insufficient stomach acid for proper digestion, resultant low nutrient status)

  • Hypogonadism (underdeveloped ovaries or testicles)

  • Irritability

  • Joint Pains

  • Learning/developmental delays

  • Loss of appetite (anorexia)

  • Loss of smell

  • Loss of taste

  • Low Glutathione (essential for removing toxins from body)

  • Low Testosterone

  • Macular degeneration

  • Mental lethargy

  • Night blindness (in conjunction with vitamin A deficiency)

  • Oral Ulcers

  • Osteoporosis (low density bones)

  • Oxidative Stress (damage to tissues by oxygen molecules)

  • Poor fertility

  • Poor Immune Function (prolonged or frequent illness, pneumonia, chronic inflammation)

  • Seborrhea

  • Slow growth/ Short stature

  • Slow wound healing

  • Striae (stretch marks)

  • White spots on or deformities of the fingernails

  • White tongue coating

Pyridoxine (B6) – a common cofactor in many biochemical processes, especially in creating neurotransmitters, brain detoxifying agents, and hemoglobin.

Signs of B6 deficiency:

  • Anemia

  • Anxiety/Nervousness

  • Depression

  • Confusion

  • Conjunctivitis

  • Drowsiness/Fatigue

  • Glossitis (painful/inflamed tongue)

  • Glucose intolerance (diabetes)

  • Insomnia

  • Irritability

  • Low Glutathione

  • Neuropathy

  • Oxidative Stress

  • Muscle weakness

  • Poor absorption of nutrients

  • Poor blood clotting

  • Poor synthesis of Neurotransmitters

  • Low serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, histamine, and GABA)

  • Seborrhea (crusty/scaly skin discharges)

Biotin (B7) – an essential vitamin for growing health hair, skin, nails, and nerve tissues.

B7 Signs of deficiency:

  • Brittle nails and hair

  • Conjunctivitis

  • Depression

  • Fatigue (mitochondrial dysfunction)

  • Fungal infections

  • Hair loss

  • Hallucinations

  • Hearing loss

  • Muscle pain

  • Neuropathy

  • Premature aging

  • Skin conditions (rashes, dry skin, seborrhea, especially of face)

Arachidonic Acid (omega 6) – an often ignored anti-inflammatory fat that is essential for all cells.

AA deficiency signs:

  • Alzheimer’s/Dementias

  • Arthritis

  • Behavior changes/problems

  • Bipolar Disorders

  • Dry eyes

  • Dry skin and hair

  • Hair loss

  • Heart Beat abnormalities

  • Kidney dysfunction

  • Miscarriages

  • Neuropathy

  • Poor White Blood Cell function (leukocyte infections)

  • Poor exercise recovery

  • Skin eruptions

  • Slow physical growth

  • Slow wound healing

  • Sterility in males

Manganese (Mn) – another important mineral for many body processes, deficiencies can induce a higher uptake of Lead into the body.

Signs of Mn deficiency:

  • Arthritis/Joint pain

  • Changes in hair pigment

  • Elevated Blood sugar (diabetes)

  • Epilepsy (seizures)

  • Fatigue

  • Hypothyroid (low thyroid hormone production)

  • Inflammation

  • Neurological decline (e.g. Parkinson's disease)

  • Osteoporosis (brittle bones)

  • Poor wound healing

  • Slow hair growth

  • Slow physical development


In order to find out if HPU is underlying your conditions a simple urine test can be performed. However, the instructions that come in most KPU/HPL kits are not sufficient to get the best sample. Dr. Klinghart has given steps to produce the ideal result, which I have re-created below for using the Health Diagnostics KPU test.

Kryptopyrrole Urine Test Instructions

Discontinue all supplements containing minerals or vitamins (especially: B6 (pyridoxine or P5P), Zinc, and Manganese) for 5 days prior to testing.

Do not consume coffee or an excessive amounts of water (> 80 ounces) for 24 hours before test.

Collect Urine for a full 24 hours, including if you awake at night.

Make sure to collect the 24 hour sample on a Sunday, Monday, or Tuesday as the sample needs to be overnighted on a Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday (prepaid form is included).

The sample should be collected on a day with high stress (not on a resting or relaxing day) as this can lead to false negatives (for many this means Sunday is not a good choice).

Obtain a large container (such as an old cardboard half gallon milk or juice container), clean it out, and use this as your collection device. Store this in the refrigerator between collections.

On day of collection, do not collect the first morning’s void. You will, however, collect the next morning’s first void.

Once sample is completely collected, shake the carton well, and poor into the brown sample container (do not overfill). Close brown sample container and shake again. Place the brown container into the freezer for an hour.

Remove sample container from freezer, make sure the label has the requested information.

Place in white padded envelope, seal, and place into FedEx package. Be sure to include payment and completed requisition form within the package!

Fill out and apply FedEx label and get to a FedEx drop ASAP.


Do not attempt to treat this condition without the help of a HPU literate doctor. People who have had this condition for a long time have likely accumulated heavy metals in the body. This is the body’s best way to substitute for the lack of minerals such as Zinc and Manganese. As these minerals are replete, the heavy metals will be kicked out and can cause damage if proper detoxification protocols have not been put in place. Therefore, make sure you are working with a physician who knows how to help you with detoxifying heavy metals before attempting.

Furthermore, correcting the deficiencies that HPU causes requires very high, individual doses of these nutrients. Knowing toxicity symptoms of these substances is very important. For these reasons, treatment protocols have not been provided within this article.

450 views0 comments
bottom of page